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Sunday, July 22

  1. page 16 and Pregnant edited 16 and Pregnant {16_logo.jpg} MTV's 16 and Pregnant Logo Introduction 16 and Pregnant is a doc…
    16 and Pregnant
    {16_logo.jpg} MTV's 16 and Pregnant Logo
    16 and Pregnant is a documentary reality series that began to air in 2009 on MTV. Each hour long episode follows an expectant teen mother a few months before and after the birth of her child (Suellentrop, 2010). Produced by Morgan J. Freeman, the show depicts the challenges that young mothers face: “tumultuous relationships, family involvement (or lack thereof), financial struggles, school and work stress, gossip, and more – all while learning how to care for themselves and their children” (Suellentrop, 2010). In the final episode of the season, Dr. Drew hosts 16 and Pregnant: Life after Labor to recap each episode and catch up on what has happened since filming ended.
    With the success of the show, MTV has since launched Teen Mom that follows the everyday lives select moms from 16 and Pregnant.
    Decline in Teen Pregnancy Rates
    According to a government study, US teen birthrates have significantly decreased in 2009 after a 5% increase from 2005 to 2007 (Dihn, 2010). A report by theNational Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy recognizes “16 and Pregnant specifying that 82% of teenagers credit the hit show in helping them understand the challenges that come with unexpected parenthood” (Dihn, 2010). The decrease in rates has affected all ethnicities and races. Most notably, the Hispanic teen pregnancy rate has dropped 10% (Dihn, 2010).
    Opening the Doors to Communication
    A study conducted by iRT concluded that “16 and Pregnant got young people talking and thinking about teen pregnancy – 40% of those in the treatment group said they talked about the show with a parent, 63% discussed with a friend, and 37% discussed with a sibling” (, 2010). With statistics showing that 3 in 10 girls will get pregnant before the age of 20, any communication that can lead to prevention measures is important. Teens who discuss sex with their parents are less likely to have sex at a younger age, more likely to practice safe sex, and have a better transition into adulthood (Bond, 2011). In terns of 16 and Pregnant, 83% said that they learned new things form the discussion of the episodes (, 2010).
    Using Media to Prevent Teen Pregnancy
    Research has found that the “sexual content in media can influence teens’ attitudes about sex and contraception and may also influence their sexual behavior” – therefore it is reasonable to explore whether media might be used to help prevent teen pregnancy (Suellentrop, 2010). Entertainment media can reach and hold the attention of millions of teens with important messages about teen pregnancy. Data supports the claim this claim that 16 and Pregnant is acting as a public service. A study conducted at “Ohio State University showed the college-age women who watched an episode of The O.C. depicting a pregnancy scare were more likely to try to use birth control than women who watched a show in a news format about the hardships of teen pregnancy” (Grose, 2010). Furthermore, a 2007 study in rural India showed that women who watched a soap opera with empowering story lines were more likely to report domestic violence and send their daughters to school (Grose, 2010). All of which are examples 16 and Pregnant tries to build upon.
    A Study: Teen Viewers’ Attitudes About Teen Pregnancy
    A study conducted by The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy has shed light on the positive effects the media can have on teens, in particular 16 and Pregnant. A total of 162 teens participated ranging in age from 10-19 with the average age being 13.5 years (Suellentrop, 2010).
    The study found that 16 and Pregnant got teens talking as well as thinking about pregnancy. The majority of those who watched the show ended up discussing teen pregnancy later with 40% of those individuals talking to a parent, and one-third talking to a sibling or significant other. “Clearly, this show is an excellent conversation starter for teens” (Suellentrop, 2010). Furthermore, the study found that the more teens discuss teen pregnancy, the “less likely they were to think that teen pregnancy and teen parenthood are commonplace, or to agree with the statement, most teens want to get pregnant” (Suellentrop, 2010).
    The final main observation of the study showed that not only did teens find 16 and Pregnant realistic, but 93% agreed with the statement that “I learned that teen parenthood is harder than I imagined from these episodes” (Suellentrop, 2010). Neither gender wanted to imitate the lives of those on 16 and Pregnant, a statistic that shows the positive effects the series is having on teens.
    Glamorizing Teen Pregnancy
    16 and Pregnant has received media criticism as its apparent glamorization of teenage pregnancy. However, research has shown that this belief is not shared among teens with only 15% of teens who have seen the show believing that it glamorizes teen pregnancy (Fast Facts, 2010). Bill Albert, a spokesperson for the Nation Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, supports the show and believes that “16 and Pregnant helps broaden insight into teen pregnancy” (Dinh, 2010). With supporting data, experts say that not only does the show not glamorize teen pregnancy but may have the opposite effect -79% of girls and 67% of boys agreeing “that when a TV show character they like deals with teen pregnancy, it makes then think more about their own risk of getting pregnant or causing a pregnancy and hot to avoid it” (Fast Facts, 2010).
    Domestic Violence
    {amber.jpg} Amber Portwood and her baby's father, Gary Shirley
    The show has also received negative media attention for its various portrays of domestic violence. In the first season, Farrah Abraham had his mother arrests forassaulting her during a verbal confrontation. Fellow season one co-star Amber Portwood was frequency seen hitting and verbally abusing her baby’s father, Gary (Daly, 2011). Season two portrayed Jenelle Evan constantly verbally abusing her mother, the legal guardian of her child. If this violence were not enough, the trailer for the new season depicts Jennifer Del Rio, mother of two twin boys, attacking and punching her boyfriend which threatening to take away his children (Daly, 2011).
    Bond, B. (2011). Family Communication about Sex. Champaign, Illinois.
    Daly, S. (2011, April 5). '16 and Pregnant' season 3 will feature more violence - New York Post. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from
    Dinh, J. (2010, December 22). MTV's '16 And Pregnant' Credited For Decline In Teen Pregnancy Rates - Music, Celebrity, Artist News | MTV . New Music Videos,
    Reality TV Shows, Celebrity News, Top Stories | MTV. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from
    credited- decline-teen-pregnancy-rates.jhtml
    Fast Facts: Does the Media Glamorize Teen Pregnancy?. (n.d.). The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from
    Grose, J. (2010, February 22). Can the MTV reality show 16 and Pregnant keep teens from conceiving? - By Jessica Grose - Slate Magazine. Slate Magazine. Retrieved
    April 11, 2011, from
    Is Media Glamorizing Teen Pregnancy?. (2010, October 4). Retrieved April 11, 2011, from
    Suellentrop, K. (n.d.). Science Says. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from

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  2. page 16 and Pregnant edited Rebecca Kuczynski 16 and Pregnant {16_logo.jpg} MTV's 16 and Pregnant Logo
    Rebecca Kuczynski
    16 and Pregnant
    {16_logo.jpg} MTV's 16 and Pregnant Logo
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Thursday, June 7

Monday, April 9

Monday, March 26

  1. page He's Just Not That Into You (the book) edited Iga Cyganczuk He’s Just Not That Into You (the book) He’s Just Not That Into You History
    Iga Cyganczuk
    He’s Just Not That Into You (the book)
    He’s Just Not That Into You History
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Tuesday, December 6

  1. page Erotophobia edited Caroline Novotny Erotophobia ... sexual feelings. The word erotophobia is derived from th…
    Caroline Novotny
    sexual feelings.
    The word erotophobia is derived from the name of Eros, the Greek God of erotic love, and Phobos, which is the Greek word for "fear" (Medical-Dictionary, 2011).
    Diagnosis, 2011).
    There are several fears associated with erotophobia. An individual or entire culture can have one or multiple erotophobic negative attitudes. Some types of erotophobia include fear of sexual images, fear o {hidden-fears-fair-sex.jpg} Woman afraid of her sex fearsf nudity, homophobia, fear of sex education, fear of sexual discourse, fear of genitalia, fear of love, fear of intimacy, and fear of any sexual activities or behaviors.
    As a clinical condition or phobia, erotophobia describes an irrational and potentially incapacitating fear of some object, person or act that is related to sex in any way. This fear can either completely prevents a person from having the ability to have sex, or just impair a person's ability to enjoy sexual relations. This can include flirting and intimate conversations as well. Erotophobia can also in some, but not all individual cases, be connected and a part of larger patterns of any of the following psychological problems: social phobia, avoidant personality disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, or general social anxiety disorders. Some types of erotophobia can also, for other individuals or cultures, be very specific to certain erotic matters and not be related to any of these other social anxiety disorders. If an individual had ertotophobia that was specific to a certain sexual matter, then no other phobias or syndromes would be present and the fear would only arise if that thing or event was present or occurring (Wikipedia, 2011).
    Psychological Studies/Causes
    Research on individuals with erotophobia has become more prevalent in the past thirty years. Studies have found that individuals who are suffering from such a phobia have a correlation with less consistent use of contraceptives and a lack of knowledge about human sexuality. Researchers have found that individuals who were not properly introduced to sexual topics in school or at home are more likely to develop symptoms of erotophobia. This phobia is surprisingly common and each year this phobia pushes countless people to needless distress and fear (Swarag, 2007).
    (Durant, 2002).
    Psychologists also sometimes attempt to describe sexuality on a personalityscale. For example, erotophobes are less likely to talk about sex and have more negative reactions to sexually explicit material. They also have less sex and with less sexual partners over time. In contrast, erotophiles are compared with individuals with erotophobia and score high on the opposite end of the scale, erotophilia, which is characterized by expressing less guilt about sex, talking about sex more openly, and holding more positive attitudes toward sexually explicit material (Phobia Fear Release, 2011). Using personality tests as measuring tools is used to assess openness to sex and sexuality. It is an important dimension to measure because of the health and safety risks associated with poor sexual education. Because research had shown that individuals with erotophobia have had poor sexual education, they are at more of a risk if they do decide to participate in sexual activities. It is also important because erotophobia has been shown to create relationship and marital difficulties in multiple studies (Wikipedia, 2011).
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